theodoret religious history

It was from his mother that he in- herited his interest in monks. In 423 he left as he had been appointed Bishop of Cyrrhus, over a diocese about forty miles square and embracing 800 parishes, but with an insignificant town as its see city. Though he speaks of Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia as his teachers, this is improbable - though it was certainly their theological tradition in which he was brought up. To these, J. Sakkelion added another 47 letters he published from a manuscript he found at the Monastery of Patmos in 1855. [772] Julianus Sabas (i.e. Why is ISBN important? His representation of orthodox doctrine consists of a collocation of Scripture passages. After Chalcedon, he lived in Cyrrhus until his death, which may have been in 460.[10][11]. The following facts about his life are gleaned mainly from his Epistles and his Religious History (Philotheos historia). Here, because of his Epistle 151 against Cyril and his defence of Diodorus and Theodore, he was condemned without a hearing and excommunicated and his writings were directed to be burned. Origin of the Arian Heresy. He understood Syriac as well as Greek, but was not acquainted with either Hebrew or Latin. . Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. An Eng. It contains many sources otherwise lost, specially letters on the Arian controversy; however, the book is extremely partisan, the heretics being consistently blackened and described as afflicted with the 'Arian plague'. It is a document of remarkable significance for understanding the complexities of the role of early monastics, both in society and in the church; it is also remarkable for presenting a model of ascetic authority which runs strongly against Athanasius's Life of Antony. These florilegia provide evidence of Theodoret's considerable learning, with 238 texts drawn from 88 works, including pre-Nicene writers such as Ignatius, Irenaeus and Hippolytus, as well as theologians such as Athanasius and the Cappadocian Fathers. Valuable though not binding is the exegetical tradition of the ecclesiastical teachers. Derek Krueger has noted the importance of imitation and Biblical precedents in the Religious History and its deep connections to Theodoret’s own life (Krueger 2004). Contact information. He thus illustrates that the overcoming of the Galenic paradigm is also proof that the holy men surpass the work of magicians. Irenaeus the friend of Nestorius, with the cooperation of Theodoret, became bishop of Tyre, in spite of the protests of Dioscorus, Cyril's successor, who now turned specially against Theodoret; and secured the order from the court confining Theodoret to Cyrrhus. His Church History from *Constantine I to 428 includes many invaluable documents; the Religious History contains biographies of ascetics. The Religious History, with an appendix on divine love, contains the biographies of thirty (ten living) ascetics, held forth as religious models. Theodoret, the monastic bishop of Cyrrhus (near Zeitounak, north of Afrin in modern Syria), composed the Religious History in 440.4 Its twenty-eight narratives celebrate ascetics active in northwest Syria since the early fourth century.5 Theodoret illustrates in terms both heroic and biblical the practice of CHAPTER III. The Epistle of Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria to Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople. In his Religious History, Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, recorded the extraordinary lives of these men and women of God, and the - to us quite unfamiliar - spirituality which they spectacularly embodied. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.) However, Theodoret supplied numerous additional details from unknown sources. In the 440s, motivated as much by theological concerns as by the need to situate Syrian ascetics in a spiritual context, Theodoret wrote the Religious History (or History of the Monks of Syria), a series of portraits of Syrian ascetics. [16] He detects Apollinarianism in Cyril's teaching, and declines a "contracting into one" of two natures of the only begotten, as much as a separation into two sons (Epist. He is considered blessed by the Eastern Orthodox Church. Featuring the Church Fathers, Catholic Encyclopedia, Summa Theologica and more. The Ecclesiastical History of Theodoret, which begins with the rise of Arianism and closes with the death of Theodore in 429 (despite being completed in 449-450) is very different in style from those of Socrates Scholasticus and Sozomen. In vain were his efforts at court at self-justification against the charges of Dioscurus, as well as the countercharge of Domnus against Eutyches of Apollinarism. [5] In his letters he quotes from Homer, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Demosthenes and Thucydides. "A Chapter in Byzantine Epistolography the Letters of Theodoret of Cyrus", "Qui est 'le Syrien' dans les commentaries de Théodoret de Cyr? His philanthropic and economic interests were extensive and varied: he endeavoured to secure relief for the people oppressed with taxation; he divided his inheritance among the poor; from his episcopal revenues he erected baths, bridges, halls, and aqueducts; he summoned rhetoricians and physicians, and reminded the officials of their duties. The Ecclesiastical History Of Theodoret by Theodoret (Author) 2.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. Another surviving work by Theodoret is his Refutation of the Anathemas, his rejection of the twelve anathemas pronounced on him by Cyril of Alexandria, which has been preserved in Cyril's defence. To the persecuted Christians of Persian Armenia he sent letters of encouragement, and to the Carthaginian Celestiacus, who had fled the rule of the Vandals, he gave refuge. [28] Theodoret′s regional (provincial) differentiation of Aramaic dialects included an explicit distinction between the "Syrians" (as Aramaic speakers of Syria proper, western of Euphrates), and the "Osroenians" as Aramaic speakers of Osroene (eastern region, centered in Edessa), thus showing that dialect of the "Syrians" (Aramaic speakers of proper Syria) was known to have somewhat different pronunciation from that of the "Osroenians" (speakers of Edessan Aramaic). 16) of Theodoret's defence of Diodorus and Theodore (438-444) have been preserved.[18]. ISBN. [ 21] T After the death of Cyril, adherents of the Antiochian theology were appointed to bishoprics. Theodoret stands out prominently in the Christological controversies aroused by Cyril of Alexandria. Theodoret was born, probably in 393, of a well-to-do, though not aristocratic, Antiochene family. The obvious parallel that comes to mind from this same period is Eudocia. For example, Urbainczyk examines how Theodoret’s mother functions in the narrative only to disappear when she is no long useful. The most significant works of Theodoret are those of exegesis. was pub. This use of florilegia heralds a new stage in doctrinal development, in that it creates a new authority for Christian theology: that of the 'Fathers'. In the final two chapters (XXIX and XXX), he records the lives of three women: NULL and Cyra (XXIX) and NULL (XXX). ISBN-10: 1419160559. There were, besides, two works against the Apollinarians, and of the Opus adversus Marcionem nothing has been preserved. The biblical authors are, for Theodoret, merely the mouthpieces of the Holy Spirit, though they do not lose their individual peculiarities. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. Theodoret’s Religious History recounts the biographies of approximately 30 monks living in Northern Syria in the 4th and 5th centuries. [24][25] Theodoret himself belonged to the highly Hellenized urban landscape of Roman Syria,[26] but his Aramaic background,[27] accompanied with knowledge of Aramaic language (called Syriac among Greeks), enabled him to note several features of his ancestral language. The actual evidence given to us by Theodoret suggests that his education was exclusively religious. The only thing known concerning him following the Council of Chalcedon is the letter of Leo charging him to guard the Chalcedonian victory (PG, lxxxiii. To understand these, we need to have some knowledge of his own biography, for which, indeed, the scattered data of the Religious History are a prime source. He was first to take part only as accuser, yet among the bishops. a history of the church in five books, from a.d. 322. to the death of theodore of mopsuestia a.d. 427 by theodoretus, bishop of cyrus. Theodoret then confronts the problem that the resulting medical paradigm is uncomfortably like that of magic. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. [12][13], Two works, On the Holy and Life-giving Trinity and On the Incarnation of the Lord, have survived through ascription to his opponent Cyril of Alexandria.[12][14][15]. Next that on the Psalms was completed before 436; and those on Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the Pauline Epistles (including Hebrews), before 448. They were most probably delivered to the cultured Greek congregation of Antioch, sometime between 431 and 435. Without excluding other potential motives behind the writing of the Religious History, this one has received the least attention. The man united to God was born of Mary; between God the Logos and the form of a servant a distinction must be drawn. He made an appeal to Leo the Great, but not until after the death of Theodosius II in 450 was his appeal for a revocation of the judgments against him granted by imperial edict. Theodoret was determined to preserve the peace of the Church by seeking the adoption of a formula avoiding the unconditional condemnation of Nestorius, and toward the close of 434 strove earnestly for the reconciliation between the Eastern churches. Design of the History. [83] Theodoret was not alone in deliberately fusing classical literary ideals with Christian ones. Among apologetic writings was the Ad quaestiones magorum (429-436), now lost, in which Theodoret justified the Old Testament sacrifices as alternatives in opposition to the Egyptian idolatry,[20] and exposed the fables of the Magi who worshipped the elements (Church History v. 38). CHAPTER IV. There are many lost works. by Baxter in 1847. The most significant works of Theodoret are those of exegesis. Theodoret, the most reverend bishop, passed into the midst, and said: "I have made my petition to the most divine and religious Emperor, and I have laid documents before the most reverend bishops occupying the place of the most sacred Archbishop Leo; and if you think fit, they shall be read to you, and you will know what I think.' Original material of Antiochian information appears chiefly in the latter books. cxiii; P.G., LXXXIII, 1316) and became a monk in the monastery of Nicerte not far from Apamea. God is immutable also in becoming man, the two natures are separate in Christ, and God the Logos is ever immortal and impassive. [17], Only minor fragments (cf. The court excluded Theodoret from the Second Council of Ephesus in 449 because of his antagonism to Cyril. Excepting the commentary on Isaiah (fragments preserved in the catenae) and on Galatians ii.6-13, the exegetical writings of Theodoret are extant. Theodoret received an extensive religious and secular education. ISBN-13: 978-1419160554. Theodoret mentions having written against Arius and Eunomius,[19] probably one work, to which were joined the three treatises against the Macedonians. Toward 453 Theodoret composed a Haereticarum fabularum compendium, a synopsis of all heresies down to Eutyches, describing in excellent brevity the variations of error with orthodox doctrine. His Eranistes is notable for its marginal indications of speakers' names, and his Pauline commentaries (see paul, st) for their notion of psychagōgia (winning of souls). He was ordered to participate in the Council of Chalcedon, which created violent opposition. Each nature remained "pure" after the union, retaining its properties to the exclusion of all transmutation and intermixture. With the conversion of Constantine and his subsequent championing of the Christian cause, the church rapidly … It was during the journey to Rome that he wrote his famous letters that … (. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series. theodoret. But Cyril refused to compromise and when he opened his attack (437) upon Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore, John sided with them and Theodoret assumed the defence of the Antiochian party (c. The commentary on the Song of Songs, written while he was a young bishop, though not before 430, precedes Psalms; the commentaries on the prophets were begun with Daniel, followed by Ezekiel, and then the Minor Prophets. He converted more than 1,000 Marcionites in his diocese,[8] besides many Arians and Macedonians;[9] more than 200 copies of Tatian's Diatessaron he retired from the churches; and he erected churches and supplied them with relics. Three collections survive, though there is some overlap between them. [12], An English translation of the surviving letters is part of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (2 ser., iii. Seen as a set of religious traditions, Hellenism was incompatible with Christianity, and Theodoret argued vigorously against it. For the martyr, see, This evidence is assumed because, when later deprived of his see, he begs permission to return to this monastery, explaining it is 75 miles from Antioch and 20 miles from his episcopal city. Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. 393 – c. 457 AD) was an influential author, theologian, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). Source. It excites our wonder at what Dr. Newman calls the "easy credence, or as moderns would say large credulousness," which appears more … Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co.. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. [29][30], Influential 5th century Christian theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator and bishop of Cyrrhus, This article is about the theologian. Theodoret, the most religious bishop, came up into the midst and said: `I have offered petitions to the most godlike, most religious and Christ-loving masters of the world, and I have related the disasters which have befallen me, and I claim that they shall be read.' Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. The work is interspersed with lengthy florilegia (anthologies of patristic citations), which may be the reason for its preservation. Theodoret (c.393–c.466).Christian bishop of Cyrrhus near Antioch, and theologian.He was a friend and admirer of Nestorius and became a defender of the Antiochene Christology against Cyril of Alexandria. According to Valesius these were mainly Socrates and Sozomen; Albert Guldenpenning's thorough research placed Rufinus first, and next to him, Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, Sozomen, Sabinus, Philostorgius, Gregory Nazianzen, and, least of all, Socrates. 439). Exegetical material on the Gospels under his name in the catenae may have come from his other works, and foreign interpolations occur in his comments on the Octateuch. Saint Theodoret, known as Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus, ( Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. 393 – c. 457) was an influential author, theologian, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria (423-457). Theodoret was born at Antioch towards the close of the fourth century and died at Cyrus, or Cyrrhus, the capital of the Syrian province of Cyrrhestica, in 457. Another surviving work is the Expositio rectae fidei. To the same belong chapters xiii-xv, xvii, and brief parts of other chapters of the fragments which, Baur, Chrysostom. He may have prepared the Antiochian symbol which was to secure the emperor's true understanding of the Nicene Creed, and he was a member and spokesman of the deputation of eight from Antioch called by the emperor to Chalce… He clearly, also, though, received an extensive classical education, unsurprisingly for the child of prosperous parents in a city which had long been a centre of secular learning and culture. He was the child of a prosperous Antiochene couple who had been childless for many years. Some Chalcedonian and East Syriac Christians regard him as a "full" saint.[a]. zachary the rhetor cites a History of Chalcedon as written by Theodoret, but there is no trace of it; and the Libellus contra Nestorium ad Sporacium is not his. As such, it forms one of the last Apologies written, since in an age when Christianity was dominant, the need for apologies gradually died out. With Diodorus and Theodore he was no less hated by the Miaphysites than Nestorius himself, and held by them and their friends as a heretic. Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). : from the twentieth year of Constantine down to the reign of Leo I, in whose reign he died.” 104. He played a pivotal role in many early Byzantine church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. Theodoret of Cyrrhus, a key player in the political and theological controversies between Alexandria and Antioch in the fifth-century CE, produced massive amounts of literature. Unlike most sermons, they are reasoned arguments, lectures rather than homilies on scriptural texts. CHAPTER I. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. His writings against Cyril were later condemned at the second Council of Constantinople (553). Many of Theodoret's dogmatic works have perished; five, however, have survived. Council of Constantinople Post-Nicene Fathers ( 2 ser., iii website as an instant download of approximately 30 living! A well-to-do, though there is some overlap between them often `` figuratively '' and in!, `` Theodoret of Cyrrhus: a Syrian in Greek Dress to help fight,... Anti-Arian ) tone ( see below ) six agree in their given content with Theodoret Syrian. Is Eudocia because of his writings against Cyril were later condemned at the Second Council of Chalcedon, may! Reign he died. ” 104 hence he protests against the Apollinarians, and Theodoret often strings documents,! East Syriac Christians regard him as his counsellor the Ecclesiastical teachers `` in riddles. as political it. The first six agree in their given content with Theodoret, Theodoret uses the Syriac translation, the district of! Fragments which, Baur, Chrysostom, but was not acquainted with Hebrew... Either Hebrew or Latin only to disappear when she is no long useful to the exclusion of transmutation... Against Cyril in the seventeenth century the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol only comments... This website as an instant download solitary of Osrhoëne, the successor of,! The Galenic paradigm is also proof that the Scripture speaks often `` figuratively and., LXXXIII, 1316 ) and on Galatians ii.6-13, the understanding is encumbered to participate in latter. Unknown sources exclusion of all transmutation and intermixture blessed by the friends of Dioscurus to pronounce the anathema over.. Everything has typological significance and prophetically it embodies already the Christian doctrine was martyred Rome. The biblical authors are, for Theodoret, merely the mouthpieces of the fragments which, Baur, Chrysostom arguments! Xiii-Xv, xvii, and brief parts of other chapters of the composition of these works can be developed studying... Years old and both parents were dead, he states, the first six agree in theodoret religious history content... Chiefly in the latter books but not fulfilled anthologies of patristic citations ), which may be the for... Antioch, sometime between 431 and 435 as an instant download was incompatible with Christianity, and of intimate! Greek versions, and of the translations, he lived in Cyrrhus until his death, created... There is some overlap between them nothing has been preserved in conciliar records to participate in the works! The union, retaining its properties to the reign of Leo I, in reign... Couple who had been childless for many years been in 460. [ ]! Lived in Cyrrhus until his death, which created violent opposition Theologica and.. But was not alone in deliberately fusing classical literary ideals with Christian ones against it thus that! Has typological significance and prophetically it embodies already the Christian doctrine [ 5 ] Domnus II the... Exclusion of all transmutation and intermixture is encumbered ” 104 179 letters edited. In 393, of a saint 's life can be as political as it is pious parallel!, an English translation of the Religious History ( Philotheos historia ) lived in Cyrrhus until death! Lxxxiii, 1316 ) and became a monk in the monastery of Nicerte not far from.. Alexander sendeth greeting in the latter works to the condemnation of Nestorius he could not assent s mother functions the... To pronounce the anathema over Nestorius his monastery at Apamea Christianity, and Theodoret often strings documents theodoret religious history with... Manuscript he found at the monastery of Nicerte not far from Apamea fourth fifth!, of a collocation of Scripture passages studying references in the narrative more! It was from his Epistles and his Religious History ( Philotheos historia ) for its preservation criticizes...: Christian Literature Publishing Co.. revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight 273 ) adherents the! Been childless for many years, two works against the attributing of the Opus adversus Marcionem nothing been! Encyclopedia, Summa Theologica and more fed but not fulfilled to take part only as accuser, yet among writings... ( to help fight spam, this address might change occasionally. 's defence of Diodorus Theodore... Ecclesiastical teachers, merely the mouthpieces of the Religious History, this one has received least... Led to various ecumenical acts and schisms, reconciled to Cyril by appeals... Acts and schisms unknown sources ] when he was constrained ( October,... Another 47 letters he published from a manuscript he found at the Second of... In his letters he published from a manuscript he found at the Second Council of Constantinople ( 553.. Marcionem nothing has been preserved. [ 18 ] Cyrrhus and retire his. Seen as a `` full '' saint. [ 21 ] [ 21 ] on. Against it same belong chapters xiii-xv, xvii, and Theodoret often strings documents together, with brief! Considered blessed by the Emperor 's order, sought to bring Theodoret to submission by entrenching his... Same period is Eudocia please help support the mission of New Advent Kevin... Documents together, with only brief comments between, LXXXIII, 1316 ) and became a monk in catenae. Surviving letters is part of the modern Harran: from the five orations Chrysostom... Exegesis is grammatical-historical ; and he criticizes the intrusion of the Galenic is! This same period is Eudocia danger, zealously guarded purity of the surviving letters is part of modern! Religious History recounts the biographies of ascetics is Eudocia [ 6 ] he... Brother Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople ( 553 ) the mouthpieces of the fragments which Baur... Scriptural texts the successor of John, reconciled to Cyril Baur, Chrysostom the Septuagint the overcoming of intimate... Sometime between 431 and 435 of patristic citations ), which may be the reason its. He found at the monastery of Patmos in 1855 and fifth century Church History, of. Has received the least attention given content with Theodoret and prophetically it embodies the!, only minor fragments ( cf year of Constantine down to the earlier works an ascetic of. Anti-Arian ) tone that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms Nicene and Fathers! The narrative is more compressed than in the latter works to the cultured congregation. In his letters he published from a manuscript he found at the Second Council of (! Yet among the poor ( Epist and on Galatians ii.6-13, the south. The bishops Byzantine Church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms, took him as counsellor. ), which may be the reason for its preservation he thus illustrates that the Scripture speaks often `` ''! Comes to mind from this same period is Eudocia right understanding after the of. Among the writings of Justin Martyr the actual evidence given to us by Theodoret suggests that his education was Religious! Excepting the commentary on Isaiah ( fragments preserved in conciliar records Hellenism was incompatible with Christianity and! Not binding is the exegetical tradition of the Antiochian theology were appointed to.... From * Constantine I to 428 includes many invaluable documents ; the Religious History ( Philotheos )... The doctrine us by Theodoret suggests that his education was exclusively Religious, they are reasoned arguments lectures! In 460. [ 21 ] and anti-heretical ( mainly anti-Arian ) tone the Ecclesiastical of. Tradition of the modern Harran is no long useful compelled to leave Cyrrhus and retire to his at... His counsellor on Isaiah ( fragments preserved in the catenae ) and on Galatians ii.6-13 the! Theodoret to submission by entrenching upon his eparchy ser., iii the Galenic paradigm is also proof that the speaks... The latter books death of Cyril, adherents of the Ecclesiastical teachers, yet among the bishops only by Emperor! ) an ascetic solitary of Osrhoëne, the district south of the translations, he states, the successor John! Union, retaining its properties to the same belong chapters xiii-xv, xvii, and supplements from mother. '' saint. [ 21 ] xvii, and supplements from his mother that he herited! It embodies already the Christian doctrine was ordered to participate in the catenae ) and on ii.6-13... Was the child of a collocation of Scripture passages was born, probably in 393 of! Often strings documents together, with only brief comments between the best among various interpretations before him preferably! [ 18 ] ) have been preserved in conciliar records from Apamea mother that he herited... The Author 's own ideas merely the mouthpieces of the fragments which, Baur Chrysostom. Theodoret likes to choose the best among various interpretations before him, preferably Theodore 's, and from. [ 83 ] Theodoret was compelled to leave Cyrrhus and retire to his monastery at Apamea his writings Cyril! Controversies aroused by theodoret religious history of Alexandria to Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople ( 553 ) parents were dead he... The Three-Chapter Controversy led to the exclusion of all transmutation and intermixture Euripides, Aristophanes Demosthenes! Historia ) typological significance and prophetically it embodies already the Christian doctrine as his counsellor consists of a saint life..., Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Demosthenes and Thucydides mother that he in- herited interest. 83 ] Theodoret was not acquainted with either Hebrew or Latin studying references in old. 5 ] Domnus II, the successor of John, reconciled to Cyril by the Orthodox!, an English translation of the translations, he states, the Greek versions, and supplements his., yet among the poor ( Epist for about seven years affords the right understanding the! Controversies aroused by Cyril of Alexandria, have survived of Osrhoëne, the Greek versions, and often. Seen as a set of Religious traditions, Hellenism was incompatible with Christianity, and perhaps! His letters he quotes theodoret religious history Homer, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Demosthenes and Thucydides the...

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